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05 Apr 2015

Hassan Hassan, an analyst at the Delma Institute, wrote in The Guardian that because the Islamic State "bases its teachings on religious texts that mainstream Muslim clerics do not want to deal with head on, new recruits leave the camp feeling that they have stumbled on the true message of Islam.Former Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom, David Miliband concluded the 2003 invasion of Iraq caused the creation of ISIL.407Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

By 2014, ISIL was increasingly being viewed as a militia rather than as a terrorist group.408 As major Iraqi cities fell to ISIL in June 2014, Jessica Lewis, a former US army intelligence officer at the Institute for the Study of War, described ISIL as "not a terrorism problem anymore", but rather "an army on the move in Iraq and Syria, and they are taking terrain. They have shadow governments in and around Baghdad, and they have an aspirational goal to govern. HP Pavilion DV8310CA Laptop Keyboard

I don't know whether they want to control Baghdad, or if they want to destroy the functions of the Iraqi state, but either way the outcome will be disastrous for Iraq." Lewis has called ISIL "an advanced military leadership". She said, "They have incredible command and control and they have a sophisticated reporting mechanism from the field that can relay tactics and directives up and down the line.  Lenovo 0A62039 Laptop Keyboard

They are well-financed, and they have big sources of manpower, not just the foreign fighters, but also prisoner escapees."408

While officialswhich? fear that ISIL may either inspire attacks in the United States by sympathisers or by those returning after joining ISIL, US intelligence agencies find there is no immediate threat or specific plots. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

Former US Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel sees an "imminent threat to every interest we have", but former top counterterrorism adviser Daniel Benjamin has derided such alarmist talk as a "farce" that panics the public.Some news commentators, such as international newspaper columnist Gwynne Dyer,410 and samples of American public opinion, such as surveys by NPR,have advocated a strong but measured response to ISIL's recent provocative acts.  TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

Conspiracy theorists in the Arab world have advanced rumours that the US is secretly behind the existence and emboldening of ISIL, as part of an attempt to further destabilise the Middle East. After such rumours became widespread, the US embassy in Lebanon issued an official statement denying the allegations, calling them a complete fabrication.412  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard

Otherswhich? are convinced that ISIL leader al-Baghdadi is an Israeli Mossad agent and actor called Simon Elliot. The rumours claim that NSA documents leaked by Edward Snowden reveal this connection. Snowden's lawyer has called the story "a hoax."ISIL's expanding claims to territory have brought it into armed conflict with many governments, militias and other armed groups.  HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard

International rejection of ISIL as a terrorist entity and rejection of its claim to even exist have placed it in conflict with countries around the world.Turkey has been accused of supporting or colluding with ISIL, especially by Syrian Kurds. According to journalist Patrick Cockburn, there is "strong evidence for a degree of collaboration" between the Turkish intelligence services and ISIL, although the "exact nature of the relationship ... remains cloudy".4COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU Laptop Keyboard

93David L. Phillips of Columbia University's Institute for the Study of Human Rights, who compiled a list of allegations and claims accusing Turkey of assisting ISIL, writes that these allegations "range from military cooperation and weapons transfers to logistical support, financial assistance, and the provision of medical services".494HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard

Several ISIL fighters and commanders have claimed Turkey supports ISIL.495496497 Within Turkey itself, ISIL is believed to have caused increasing political polarisation between secularists and Islamists.498

Turkey has been further criticised for allowing individuals from outside the region to enter its territory and join ISIL in Syria.499500 HP HDX18-1200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

With many Islamist fighters passing through Turkey to fight in Syria, Turkey has been accused of becoming a transit country for such fighters and has been labelled the "Gateway to Jihad".501 Turkish border patrol officers are reported to have deliberately overlooked those entering Syria upon the payment of a small bribe.501 A report by Sky News exposed documents showing that passports of foreign Islamists wanting to join ISIL by crossing into Syria had been stamped by the Turkish government.502 DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

An ISIL commander stated that "most of the fighters who joined us in the beginning of the war came via Turkey, and so did our equipment and supplies",497503 adding that ISIL fighters received treatment in Turkish hospitals.

Although Saudi Arabia's government rejected these claims,504 the Iraqi President Nouri al-Maliki accused Saudi Arabia of funding ISIL.505 SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard

Some media outlets likeNBC, BBC, and The New York Times and the US-based think tank Washington Institute for Near East Policy have written of individual Saudi donations to the group, and the Saudi state's decade long sponsorship of Salafism around the world, but have concluded that there is no evidence of direct Saudi state support for ISIL.  Lenovo 45N2141 laptop keyboard

During the Syrian Civil War, multiple parties in the conflict have accused the Syrian government of collusion with Isil to some degree. Several sources have claimed that Isil prisoners were strategically released from Syrian prisons at the beginning of the Syrian Civil War in 2011.511 The Syrian government has bought oil directly from ISIS,512HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee laptop keyboard

and in March 2015 a European Union report brought to light that the Syrian government and ISIL jointly run a HESCO gas plant in Tabqa, central Syria; the facility continues to supply government-held areas, and electricity continues to be supplied to ISIL-held areas from government-run power plants.513HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

United States Secretary of State John Kerry has stated that the Syrian government has tactically avoided Isis forces in order to weaken moderate opposition such as the Free Syrian Army,514 as well as "even purposely ceding some territory to them ISIS in order to make them more of a problem so he can make the argument that he is somehow the protector against them".515 ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

A IHS Jane's Terrorism and Insurgency Center database analysis confirmed that only 6% of Syrian government forces attacks were targeted at ISIL in Jan 1–Nov 21, 2014, while in the same period only 13% of all ISIS attacks targeted government forces.510 The National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces has stated that the Syrian government has operatives inside ISIS,516 as has the leadership ofAhrar ash-Sham.51ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

7 ISIS members captured by the FSA have claimed that they were directed to commit attacks by Syrian government operatives.

Rand Paul, the junior Senator from Kentucky, accused the US government of allying with ISIL in the Syrian Civil War by arming their allies and fighting their enemies in that country.519520   LENOVO AEQA1STU010 laptop keyboard

Abu Yusaf, a commander of the ISIL, said in August 2014 that many of the Free Syrian Army members who had been trained by United States' and Turkish and Arab military officers were now actually joining ISIL.521 In September 2014, some US-backed Syrian rebels and ISIL signed a "non-aggression" agreement.A UN report estimated a total of 15,000 fighters from over 80 countries in ISIL's ranks as of November 2014.52 Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

4 US intelligence estimated an increase to around 20,000 foreign fighters in February 2015, including 3,400 from Western countries.Statistics gathered by nation indicate up to: 3,000 from Tunisia,526527 2,500 from Saudi Arabia,526527 1,700 from Russia,5281,500 from Jordan,527 1,500 from Morocco,527 1,200 from France,527 1,000 from Turkey,529 900 from Lebanon,527COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard

650 from Germany,530 600 from the United Kingdom,526527 600 from Libya,527 500 from Uzbekistan,527 500 from Pakistan,527 440 from Belgium,527 360 from Turkmenistan,527 360 from Egypt,527 350 from Serbia,531 330 from Bosnia,527 300 from China,532 300 from Kosovo,533 300 from Sweden,534 250 from Australia,535 250 from Kazakhstan,527 Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

250 from the Netherlands,527 200 from Austria,536 200 from Algeria,527 190 from Tajikistan,527 180 from the United States,525 150 from Norway,537 150 from Denmark,527 140 from Albania,531 130 from Canada,538 120 from Israel/Palestine,527 110 from Yemen,527 100 from Sudan,527 100 from Kyrgyzstan,527 100 from Spain,539 80 from Italy,527 HP Mini 110-3519la laptop keyboard

70 from Somalia,527 70 from Kuwait,527 70 from Finland,527 50 from Ukraine,527 40 from Switzerland,527 30 from Ireland,527 and 18 from India.ISIL relies mostly on captured weapons. Major sources are Saddam Hussein's Iraqi stockpiles from the 2003–11 Iraq insurgency541 and weapons from government and opposition forces fighting in the Syrian Civil War and during the post-US withdrawal Iraqi insurgency. HP COMPAQ 486654-001 laptop keyboard

The captured weapons, including armour, guns, surface-to-air missiles, and even some aircraft, enabled rapid territorial growth and facilitated the capture of additional equipment.

The group has a long history of using truck and car bombs, suicide bombers, and IEDs, and has used chemical weapons in Iraq and Syria. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5357 laptop keyboard

ISIL captured nuclear materials from Mosul University in July 2014, but is unlikely to be able to turn them into weapons.ISIL is known for its extensive and effective use of propaganda.545546 It uses a version of the Muslim Black Standard flag and developed an emblem which has clear symbolic meaning in the Muslim world.547SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

In November 2006, shortly after the group's rebranding as the "Islamic State of Iraq", the group established the al-Furqan Institute for Media Production, which produces CDs, DVDs, posters, pamphlets, and web-related propaganda products.548 ISIL's main media outlet is the I'tisaam Media Foundation,549 which was formed in March 2013 and distributes through the Global Islamic Media Front (GIMF).550 DELL E141395 laptop keyboard



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